Edamame is a young soybean. Edamame beans are a popular, plant based food and snack that may have various health benefits.
People harvest edamame beans before they ripen or harden. They are available shelled, in the pod, fresh, or frozen.
Edamame beans are naturally gluten free and low in calories, contain no cholesterol, and they are an excellent source of protein, iron, and calcium.
Read on to find out more about the health benefits of edamame and how to add it to a diet.
Researchers have linked the consumption of soy foods with a lower risk of several age- and lifestyle-related conditions, and with improvements in overall health.
1) Age-related brain diseases
Edamame may reduce the risk of age-related brain diseases.
Studies have suggested that consuming soy isoflavones may lower the risk of cognitive decline.
Past investigations have found that treatment with soy isoflavones might help improve aspects of thinking and cognition, such as nonverbal memory and verbal fluency.
One 2015 study, involving 65 people with Alzheimer’s disease, did not confirm these findings.
However, a meta-analysis, also from 2015, concluded that soy isoflavones might help improve cognitive function after menopause. The authors suggested that there should be follow-up work on the participants in the trials to look at rates of Alzheimer’s later in life.
2) Cardiovascular disease
Some scientists have found evidence that soy protein has properties that can lower the low density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol levels, in a person’s blood.
Authors of a study from 2017 suggest that soy may also benefit cardiovascular health through its fiber content, antioxidant content, and other mechanisms.
People may also find that consuming soy products as an alternative to full fat dairy products helps improve their cholesterol levels.
Most plant based fats are unsaturated, whereas animal fats tend to be saturated. Consuming saturated fats can contribute to heart disease and other cardiovascular problems.
3) Breast and prostate cancer
There is controversy about the effect soy may have on the risk of breast cancer. Some of the isoflavones in soy, known as phytoestrogens, appear to act in a similar way to estrogen. High estrogen levels may increase the risk of specific breast cancers.
Studies on females in Asia, in contrast, have suggested that soy may reduce the risk. One reason for this may be that genistein, the main isoflavone in soy, contains antioxidant properties that could inhibit, rather than encourage, the growth of cancer cells.
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the evidence until now does not suggest that soy products increase the risk of breast or other types of cancer. The ACS conclude that the benefits of consuming soy probably outweigh any risks.
Also, a review and meta-analysis from 2018 found that consuming soy products may significantly lower the risk of prostate cancer in males.
Edamame contains folate, which the body needs to produce DNA and for proper cell division.
Past studies suggest that having an adequate folate intake may help prevent depression.
It may do this by stopping too much of a substance called homocysteine from forming in the body.
High levels of homocysteine can prevent blood and other nutrients from reaching the brain, and they can interfere with the production of the “feel-good” hormone serotonin. This hormone helps mood, sleep, and appetite.
People with type 2 diabetes may benefit from consuming unsweetened soy products, such as edamame, according to a 2012 study.
These scientists looked at data for 43,176 people over 5.7 years. They found lower rates of type 2 diabetes among those who consumed unsweetened soy products, while those eating the sweetened versions had a higher risk of developing the disease.
The study had several limitations, however, so more research is necessary to establish whether eating soy products can help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Which foods are good for people with diabetes?
Some people have suggested that consuming more iron and protein from plant sources such as edamame, spinach, beans, pumpkin, tomatoes, and beets may promote fertility or lower the risk of ovulatory disorders.
Edamame is a good source of iron, folate, and plant based protein.
A mini-review from 2018 notes an apparent link between fertility and a high intake of folic acid, polyunsaturated fats, and plant based foods. The authors call for increased awareness of the impact of a healthful diet on fertility issues.
What are fertility supplements, and do they work? Learn more here.
7) Energy levels
A lack of iron in the diet can affect how the body uses energy and can lead to iron deficiency anemia.
Edamame is an excellent nonheme source of iron, along with lentils, spinach, and dried fruit.
Find out more about iron deficiency anemia.
Edamame contains choline, a nutrient that is similar to the B vitamins. It contributes to healthy sleep, muscle movement, learning, and memory.
A 2010 study concluded that choline might help reduce the inflammation that occurs when people have asthma.
In 2017, a rodent study suggested that choline may help protect against the inflammation that leads to cardiovascular disease.
These findings do not confirm that eating choline from edamame will have these benefits, but it might offer some protection.
Conversely, a deficiency of choline may increase the risk of liver disease, atherosclerosis, and possibly neurological disorders.
A cup of hulled edamame beans would provide 16% of a person’s daily requirement for choline.
9) Menopause-related problems
The estrogen-like action of isoflavones in soy may help relieve the impact of two aspects of menopause. A 2016 review concludes that soy isoflavones may slow bone loss and improve bone strength.
In another study from 2017, women who received soy isoflavone treatment for 12 weeks reported fewer symptoms of menopause, including fatigue, hot flashes, depression, and irritability than those who did not.
Most studies have looked at the impact of isoflavones in isolation, rather than in food containing soy. It is not clear whether a regular dietary intake from food has a similar impact.
Learn more about the health risks and benefits of soy.